This section describes informally the structure of types in Unison. See also the section titledUser-defined typesfor detailed information on how to define new data types.
Formally, Unison’s type system is an implementation of the system described by Joshua Dunfield and Neelakantan R. Krishnaswami in their 2013 paperComplete and Easy Bidirectional Typechecking for Higher-Rank Polymorphism.
Unison extends that type system with,pattern matching,scoped type variables,ability types(also known asalgebraic effects).See the section onAbilitiesfor details on ability types.
Unison attributes a type to every valid expression. For example:
4 Nat.< 5has type
42 Nat.+ 3`has type
- the list
[1, 2, 3]has type
- the function
(x -> x)has type
forall a. a -> a
The meanings of these types and more are explained in the sections below.
A full treatise on types is beyond the scope of this document. In short, types help enforce that Unison programs make logical sense. Every expression must be well typed, or Unison will give a compile-time type error. For example:
[1, 2, 3]is well typed, since lists require all elements to be of the same type.
42 + "hello"is not well typed, since the type of
+disallows adding numbers and text together.
printLine "Hello, World!"is well typed in some contexts and not others. It's a type error for instance to use I/O functions where an
IOabilityis not provided.
Types are of the following general forms.
Type variables areregular identifiersbeginning with a lowercase letter. For example
fooare valid type variables.
Auniversally quantifiedor "polymorphic" type has the form
forall v1 v2 vn. t,where
tis a type. The type
tmay involve the variables
∀is an alias for
A type like
forall x. F xcan be written simply as
forall xis implied) as long as
xis free in
F x(it is not bound by an outer scope; seeScoped type variablesbelow).
A polymorphic type may beinstantiatedat any given type. For example, the empty list
forall x. [x].So it's a type-polymorphic value. Its type can be instantiated at
Int,for example, which binds
[Int]which is also a valid type for the empty list. In fact, we can say that the empty list
is a value of type
[x]for allchoices of element type
e,hence the type
forall x. [x].
Likewise the identity function
(x -> x),which simply returns its argument, has a polymorphic type
forall t. t -> t.It has type
t -> tfor all choices of
Scoped type variables
Type variables introduced by a type signature for a term remain in scope throughout the definition of that term.
For example in the following snippet, the type annotation
temp:xis telling Unison that
temphas the type
xwhich is bound in the type signature, so
ahave the same type.
ex1 : x -> y -> x ex1 a b = temp : x temp = a a
temp : xrefers to the type
xin the outer scope.
To explicitly shadow a type variable in scope, the variable can be reintroduced in the inner scope by a `forall` binder, as follows:
ex2 : x -> y -> x ex2 a b = -- doesn’t refer to x in outer scope id : ∀ x . x -> x id v = v temp = id 42 id a
id : ∀ x . x -> x doesn’t refer to x in outer scope
Note that here the type variable
xin the type of
idgets instantiated to two different types. First
Function.id 42instantiates it to
a,instantiates it to the outer scope's type
Just as values are built using data constructors, types are built fromtype constructors.Nullary type constructors like
Floatare already types, but other type constructors like
->(seebuilt-in type constructors)take type parameters in order to yield types.
Listis a unary type constructor, so it takes one type (the type of the list elements), and
->is a binary type constructor.
List Natis a type and
Nat -> Intis a type.
Kinds of Types
Types are to values askindsare to type constructors. Unison attributes a kind to every type constructor, which is determined by its number of type parameters and the kinds of those type parameters.
A type must be well kinded, just like an expression must be well typed, and for the same reason. However, there is currently no syntax for kinds and they do not appear in Unison programs (this will certainly change in a future version of Unison).
Unison’s kinds have the following forms:
- A nullary type constructor or ordinary type has kind
- A type constructor has kind
k1 -> k2where
List,a unary type constructor, has kind
Type -> Typeas it takes a type and yields a type. A binary type constructor like
Type -> Type -> Type,as it takes two types (it actually takes a type and yields a partially applied unary type constructor that takes the other type). A type constructor of kind
(Type -> Type) -> Typeis ahigher-ordertype constructor (it takes a unary type constructor and yields a type).
A type constructor is applied to a type or another type constructor, depending on its kind, similarly to how functions are applied to arguments at the term level.
C Tapplies the type constructor
Cto the type
T.Type application associates to the left, so the type
A B Cis the same as the type
(A B) C.
X -> Yis a type for functions that take arguments of type
Xand yield results of type
Y.Application of the binary type constructor
->associates to the right, so the type
X -> Y -> Zis the same as the type
X -> (Y -> Z).
(A,B)is a type for binary tuples (pairs) of values, one of type
Aand another of type
(A,B,C)is a triple, and so on.
(A)is the same as the type
Aand is not considered a tuple.
The nullary tuple type
()is the type of the unique value also written
()and is pronounced “unit”.
In the standard Unison syntax, tuples ofarity2 and higher are actually of a type
Tuple a bfor some types
(X,Y)is syntactic shorthand for the type
Tuple X (Tuple Y ()).
Tuples are either constructed with the syntactic shorthand
(a,b)(seetuple literals)or with the built-in
Unison provides the following built-in types:
Natis the type of 64-bit natural numbers, also known as unsigned integers. They range from 0 to 18,446,744,073,709,551,615.
Intis the type of 64-bit signed integers. They range from -9,223,372,036,854,775,808 to +9,223,372,036,854,775,807.
Floatis the type ofIEEE 754-1985double-precision floating point numbers.
Booleanis the type of Boolean expressions whose value is
Bytesis the type of arbitrary-length 8-bit byte sequences.
Textis the type of arbitrary-length strings of Unicode text. They can be introduced with single quotes or triple quotes, for multi-line strings.
Charis the type of a single Unicode character.
- The trivial type
()(pronounced “unit”) is the type of the nullary tuple. There is a single data constructor of type
()and it’s also written
superProgram : Boolean -> Nat superProgram bool = if Boolean.not bool then base.bug (Generic.failure "Fatal Issue Encountered" bool) else 100.
Seeliteralsfor more on how values of some of these types are constructed.
Built-in type constructors
Unison has the following built-in type constructors.
(->)is the constructor of function types. A type
X -> Yis the type of functions from
Tupleis the constructor of tuple types. Seetuple typesfor details on tuples.
Listis the constructor of list types. A type
List Tis the type of arbitrary-length sequences of values of type
[T]is an alias for
abilities.Requestis the constructor of requests for abilities. A type
Request A Tis the type of values received by ability handlers for the ability
Awhere current continuation requires a value of type
New types can be declared as described in detail in theUser-defined typessection. These include ordinarydata types,unique types,andrecord types.A type declaration introduces a type, a corresponding type constructor, one or more data constructors that (collectively) construct all possible values of the type, and (in the case of record types) accessors for the named arguments of the type's single data constructor.
The arity of a function or data constructor describes the number of arguments that it takes.
For example, the function
addThree : Nat -> Nat -> Nat -> Natis a function of arity 3.
Some arities are common enough they get special terms:
- A "nullary" function has 0 arguments
- A "unary" function has 1 arguments
- A "binary" function has 2 arguments
- A "ternary" function has 3 arguments