Spark-like datasets in Unison

How to make any immutable data structure distributed

  • Rebecca Mark
  • Paul Chiusano

In this post we'll build our own distributed data structure from first principles. The version developed here is a little simpler than theSeqused in the "real" version of the library. We'll get to the realSeqin Part 5 of this article.

First, let's look at a simple in-memory tree data structure and understand how it can be modified to represent data spread across multiple nodes. Here's the in-memory version:

structural type SimpleTree a
structural type SimpleTree a
  = One a
  | Empty
  | Two (SimpleTree a) (SimpleTree a)

ASimpleTreeis eitherSimpleTree.Empty,a leaf:SimpleTree.One,or a branch:SimpleTree.Two.All the leaves and subtrees in aSimpleTreeare references to values which are in local memory on the same machine. If instead we want it to contain references to values that may exist at another location, we can write the following instead:

structural type src.Tree a

All we've done here is wrap each branch and leaf of the tree in a data type,distributed.Value,which represents alazyvalue at a possibly remote location.


Making a distributed data type in Unison can be as simple as wrapping the fields indistributed.Value.

There are some choices you can make here. For instance you can putdistributed.Valuearound all the fields in the data constructor or only some, and you can also have laziness "start at the root" or only when looking at subtrees. We'll discuss these subtleties in the last part of the series.

With this simple type definition, we can now implement functions like a distributedmap,reduce,and so on without needing to write any networking or serializationcode.

Let's try it for oursrc.Tree.This will be instructive! : (a ->{Remote} b) -> src.Tree a ->{Remote} src.Tree b f = cases
  src.Tree.Empty -> src.Tree.Empty
  Tree.One valueA -> todo "๐Ÿง hmmm, apply f to Value"
  Tree.Two leftValue rightValue ->
    todo "something recursive goes here ๐Ÿคจ"

We know we'll need to pattern match on the data constructors ofsrc.Treeand perform a recursive call of some kind, but now that the leaf and branch are both wrapped indistributed.Value,what should we do? There are two ways to do this that typecheck.

The first is not what quite what we want but it's instructive nonetheless. It makes ample use ofValue.get : distributed.Value a ->{Remote} ato force the lazydistributed.ValueandValue.pure : a -> distributed.Value afor creating a remote value from an in-memory value: : (a ->{Remote} b) -> src.Tree a ->{Remote} src.Tree b f = cases
  src.Tree.Empty -> src.Tree.Empty
  Tree.One valueA -> Tree.One (Value.pure (f (Value.get valueA)))
  Tree.Two leftValue rightValue ->
    use Value get pure
    use eager.Tree map
      (pure (map f (get leftValue))) (pure (map f (get rightValue)))

To see why this isn't what we want, let's look at the documentation ofValue.getandValue.pure:


Obtain theadenoted by thisdistributed.Value.

A few properties:


Create an in-memorydistributed.Value.

Satisfies the property:Value.get (Value.pure a) Universal.== a

We'resummoningthe value from a potentially remote location withValue.get,and thenValue.purecreates a value in memory at the location where it's called. Our implementation ofeager.Tree.mapwill thus end up sending the entire tree to the original caller of the function, applying the function there, and storing the resulting tree in memory at that location. That's no good--presumably the whole reason we're using a distributed data structure is the data is too big to fit in memory on a single machine.

The version ofmapwe want will do its work lazily, when the resultingsrc.Treeis forced, and it will do the mapping in parallel at the locations where the data lives rather shipping everything to thecaller.

A good rule of thumb when implementing functions likeTree.mapis tonever callValue.get.Instead we will useValue.mapto lazily apply a functionat the location where the remote value lives. : (a ->{Remote} b) -> src.Tree a -> src.Tree b : (a ->{Remote} b) -> src.Tree a -> src.Tree b f = cases
  src.Tree.Empty -> src.Tree.Empty
  Tree.One a     -> Tree.One ( f a)
  Tree.Two l r   ->
    use src
    l' = ( f) l
    r' = ( f) r
    Tree.Two l' r'

While you can perhaps see how this code typechecks, what this code does is a bit brain-bending. First, because oursrc.Tree.mapfunction does not callValue.get,src.Tree.mapis just the blueprint for the data transformation, not the transformed data itself. Not until the tree is evaluated (by say, thereducefunction we'll cover in Part 3) does any mapping actually happen. This laziness gives us fusion

"for free", so if wesrc.Tree.mapmultiple times, the functions will get composed together and applied in the same pass over the data as thereduce.

Morever, because we are,the function will be applied at the location where the data lives, rather than shipping the entire tree to the caller and applying the transformation function there.

Optional but fun exercises๐Ÿ˜Ž
Optional but fun exercises๐Ÿ˜Ž

See if you can write more functions forsrc.Tree.We've provided a codebase with the necessary dependencies and stubbed functions. To pull in the codebase, run the following in the UCM:

.> pull .article1

Thesrc.Treefunction stubs are underTree.


Exercise:Another basicsrc.Treetransformation

src.Tree.mapis a structure preserving transformation that doesn't force the distributed data to be evaluated. In a similar vein writeTree.reverse : Tree a -> Tree awhich swaps the left and right branches of the tree but doesn't force the evaluation of the tree.

Show me the answer
Show me the answer
ex1.Tree.reverse : src.Tree a -> src.Tree a
ex1.Tree.reverse = cases
  Tree.Two left right ->
    use Value map
    use ex1.Tree reverse
    l = map reverse left
    r = map reverse right
    Tree.Two r l
  remainder           -> remainder

Exercise:Building asrc.Treefrom a list

For testing purposes, it would be great if we had an easy way to make an in-memorysrc.Treefrom aList.

ImplementTree.fromList : [a] -> Tree a.It might be nice if the Tree was roughly balanced. ๐Ÿ˜Š

Show me the answer
Show me the answer
ex3.Tree.fromList : [a] -> src.Tree a
ex3.Tree.fromList = cases
  []  -> src.Tree.Empty
  [a] -> Tree.One (Value.pure a)
  as  ->
    use Value pure
    use ex3.Tree fromList
    (left, right) = List.halve as
    Tree.Two (pure (fromList left)) (pure (fromList right))


We learned a few things in this part:

  • To make a data structure distributed, wrapdistributed.Valuearound the fields it defines in its data constructors. This lets the data structure represent the data being "elsewhere" with a minimum amount of ceremony.
  • UseValue.mapjudiciously to build lazy computations likesrc.Tree.mapwhere the function is brought to the data.

We also saw how to obtain different runtime behaviors for your distributed programs through implementations of theTree.mapfunction usingValue.maporValue.get.

As a library author, you do have to be explicit when describing how your program should behave, and we consider this a good thing: you can achieve exactly what you want with a tiny amount of code, and you can wrap up common patterns in reusable functions likesrc.Tree.mapthat anyone can use without being a distributed systems expert!

If you've been wondering "how do I evaluate this in some way?" we'll cover that next, in Part 3. Again there will be some instructive decisions to make: how we implement functions likereducewill determine whether the work happens in parallel close to the data or whether the data gets sent to the caller and reduced there.

If you're interested in using Unison at work for this sort of thing, we'd love to chat with you.